CNG is the abbreviation of Compressed Natural Gas. CNG is an alternate option as fuel that can be used instead of diesel, petrol & LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).
The main component of this gas is Methane (CH4) which is an odourless and a mixture of other hydrocarbons and its compressibility is around 1% or less as compared to its total volume at standard atmospheric pressure. It emits comparatively less toxic gases as compared to other traditional fuels.
If there is any leakage, it is not as dangerous as other fuels because of being a lighter than air, it will spread in the air very quickly. So, there is less chance of pollution through this fuel gas.
In 1926, natural gases that are available in the nature was discovered and identified in the America. In 1821, William Hart first successfully dug a well of natural gas in New York, U.S.
An experiment was conducted in France for the first time with the compressed gases.
The natural gases were modified as fuel to use in the automobiles in the later part of the 1800.
At the time of first world war, natural gas used as transport fuel.
Just after the Second World War, European countries like Italy and other countries focuses on the CNG gas and implement is so that it can be used in the automobile industries.
The fuel tank or cylinder containing CNG is placed at the back side of the vehicle. The engine has the similar working function as gasoline engine. CNG which is stored in high pressure is travelled to the combustion chamber through a fuel line.
In the combustion chamber, there is a pressure regulator that adjust the pressure of CNG as per requirement and injected into the combustion chamber.
In the combustion chamber, CNG and air are mixed and is ignited with the help of a spark. It releases energy which help the vehicle to run. It should be noted that CNG can be of both liquid or gas and is generally compressed to 3,000 psi.
Production of CNG
The process of production is very simple than other fuel gases like liquefied natural gas (LNG), gas to liquid (GTL), ammonia, or methanol.
It can be simply produce by performing some operations like compression, cooling, dehydration, and separation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) if required.
Properties of CNG
- CNG is an organic compound which is composition of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, propane, and traces of ethane and is odourless, tasteless has no toxic effects.
- The main component of CNG is methane.
- The gases produce after burning of CNG is mainly greenhouse gases.
- As, it is 40% lighter than air and will dispersed in the air very easily that made it less harmful gas.
- CNG gas can be produced easily from natural gas wells, coal wells, bed methane wells and oil wells.
- The energy density of CNG is 53.6 MJ/kg (or) 9 MJ/L.
Advantages of CNG
- It is available in cheaper than other fuels such as diesel and petrol to use for vehicles.
- For commercial purpose, it is also profitable to use in vehicles such as buses and other automobiles which takes very low amount for maintenance and provides better mileage.
- It emits gases which has very low toxic effect and there is less production of unwanted gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other suspended particles which makes it environment friendly.
- It increases the life of lubricating oil as it does not affect the oil of crankcase.
- Auto-ignition power is very high for CNG which is 540 degrees centigrade or higher and this avoids accidents.
- Due to usage of this fuel, the effect of global warming can be controlled.
- The use of CNG is very safe having narrow range of flammability.
Disadvantages of CNG
- The space required to use CNG is larger than vehicles running with petrol and diesel.
- There is high risk of leakage of unburned methane which is the major component of CNG.
- Energy density of CNG is lower than other fuels.
- The availability of CNG stations is very limited so it is very hard to get it.
Due to its less toxic affect, many countries has adopted and use it in automobiles. Countries like Iran, Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil and China leading in the use of CNG.
India is also in the race of using CNG in cities like Delhi, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, and Kolkata, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, etc.
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CNG Full Form: FAQs
Q1. What is the full form of CNG?
Ans: The full form of CNG is Compressed Natural Gas.
Q2. What is the main component of CNG?
Ans: The main component of CNG is Methane.
Q3. Can CNG be considered as an environment-friendly gas?
Ans: As, it emits less toxic and less harmful gases while burning, hence we can consider CNG as an environment-friendly gas.
Q4. Is it safe to use CNG in vehicles?
Ans: If, it is handled carefully, then it is safe to use CNG in vehicles.
Q5. Is it harmful for car’s engine?
Ans: For the factory-fitted kit, it is less harmful and is not affected to the car’s engine.