LED Full Form and Working Principle

Light Emitting Diode is the full form of LED. It has light source of two-led semiconductor. The type of diode is PN-junction that release light when it becomes active.

Nowadays, it is one of the most popular electronic device that are used in various electrical as well as electronic equipment like televisions, calculators, radios, watches, and many more. Charge carriers are recombined in a LED to perform operation.

Full Form of LED

Electrons of N-side and the holes of P-side are combined and produce energy as light and heat. As substance colourless semiconductor is used to produce the LED and through the diode junctions produced light is emitted.

Coloured light is emitted as per the used semiconductor material and the quantity of doping that has a specific spectral wavelength after biasing of LED. PN-junction diode and LED has similar symbol.

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Working Principle of LED

P-type semiconductor having holes of high concentration and N-type semiconductor of high electron concentration is combine to produce light in LED. After the application of suitable voltage electrons and holes are recombined at the P-N junction that results emission of light from energy this is known as electroluminescence.

Gap between the energy bands in a semiconductor determines the colour emitted by the LED. As we know LED as a Forward Bias semiconductor device that begins it operation when a battery’s positive side is connected with N-type diode and on the other hand battery’s negative terminal is attached to the N terminal.

Therefore, when the positive voltage is applied in the P side where holes are present experiences repulsion by the battery and on the opposite negative voltage supply causes repulsion in the N where electrons are present by the battery.

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For this repulsion, movement of electrons are started to the Valance band from the conduction band. This movement results release of energy as light in a LED.

Introduction of LED is considered as the revolution in the area of source of light. Products with LED are very cheap and energy efficient and are also durable. Energy efficiency is almost 80% than other traditional bulbs and fluorescent lights available in the market.

LED Construction

P and N-type semiconductor materials are merged to prepare LED. Popular semiconductors like silicon and germanium are applied to form a semiconductor diode but instead of these Gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium arsenide phosphate(GaAsP) are used in the light-emitting diodes.

These are used in the LED for some special specification as it doesn’t release heat but light when voltage is applied.

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Types of LED

According to the usage of semiconductors, LEDs are of different types such as Miniature LEDs, Lighting LED, Red Green Blue LEDs, Flash LED, High-Power LEDs, Alphanumeric LED.

Applications of LED

The area of use of LED is very vast. Because of its some special specifications such as low power requirement, higher duration, lower response time, capable to switch rapidly, it is used in various fields such as TV backlighting, Smartphone backlighting, LED display, Automotive lighting, dimming light, LED wallpaper, Home lightning, Home decoration.

Advantages of LED


In comparison of incandescent light bulbs, LED releases higher lumens per watt. It can be seen that with the usage of only one watt, one can prepare 303 lumen lights. Shape and size has no affect in the efficiency of light fixture of a LED which affects the fluorescent light bulbs or tubes.

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Size and Colour:

Different sizes of LED are available in the market that are very easy to place even in a small circuit boards. Any colour can be obtained without using colour filters.

Response Time:

Response time of a LED is very lower and can be turned on within a very short time. It will reach its highest brightness in just few microseconds and is used in communication devices for its quick response time.

Cool lighting:

IR radiate as heat in very small amount from the Light-emitting diodes that may affect the fabric or sensitive objects.


In comparison of fluorescent tubes, lifespan of LED is longer. It is found that lifespan of a LED light is approximately 35000 to 50000 hours whereas fluorescent tubes has a lifespan of 10000 to 15000 hours.

Disadvantage of LED


You have to investment more in LED lighting than conventional light source. Though, it takes higher cost to purchase, one must get it for its various advantages.

Sensitive to temperature:

Ambience temperature affects the quality of LED lights on which it is operating. In case of high temperature, parameters may change while flowing current in the element of semiconductor. This may burn the module of the LED.

Shift of colour:

Due to exposure of continuous UV, it will result the change in colour of the bulbs. So, this problem is observed over times.

Sensitivity to Voltage:

Voltage should be higher than threshold and required current should also lower than the rating.

Decline of efficiency:

The more will be the flow of electric current, the more will be decrease the LEDs efficiency. Production of heat at higher current flow can damage the life expectancy of LED.

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Capacity of Heat Emission:

Amount of heat emission in LED is less in comparison to conventional light source. So, in winter season it may be obscure by the snow and cause difficult to control traffic.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the full form of LED?

Ans: LED is the abbreviation of Light Emitting Diode.

Q2. Can LED affects our Eyes?

Ans: It may affect our eyes though it is considered as nature friendly. As per observation, it may affect our retina and cause complete damage to our eyes.

Q3. What is the name of semiconductors used in the LED?

Ans: Gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium arsenide phosphate(GaAsP) are the semiconductors that are used in the LED.

Q4. What are the types of LED?

Ans: there are various types of LED such as Miniature LEDs, Lighting LED, Red Green Blue LEDs, Flash LED, High-Power LEDs, Alphanumeric LED.

Q5. What is the average of lifespan of a LED?

Ans: The average lifespan of a LED is around 35000 to 50000 hours.

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