What is the Full Form of CPU?

The CPU full form is Central Processing Unit. Today we are living in a modern era, where we are surrounded by technology. To make our life easy, we are applying technology, we are trying to apply computer or smartphone everywhere.

Electronic devices like computers or smartphones are made with the different parts, with the combination of these parts, we can produce our desired outputs or results. In case of computer, the parts are monitor, keyboard, mouse, CPU etc. And in case of smartphones it is screen, CPU or processor, battery etc.

CPU Full Form

Here, we are going to provide you some important information about CPU, it is stand for “Central Processing Unit”.

Which is also popular to us as Processor, Central Processor, Microprocessor.

About CPU

CPU is the most important part of any computer or smartphones. It’s like a brain for the computer or smartphones.

Nowadays, high performance microprocessor is adding to the CPUs as the result speed of performance is increased in computer and smartphones.

CPU is the part which is responsible for all the work, like run an application/software or program, process a task etc.

Modern day CPUs are implemented on integrated circuit (IC) microprocessors, where more than one CPUs can exist in a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) IC chip. That is the idea of multi core processor. Microprocessors chips with more CPUs are known as multi-core processors, like dual core, quad core, octa core etc.

Multi-core multithreaded microprocessor is more powerful than multi-core processors. Multithreaded microprocessor can create additional virtual or logical CPUs, so it can be divided a work into parts and done it more efficient way.

Nowadays CPUs are using only for general all the work and specialized GPU is using for the all graphical work.

History of CPU

The term “Central Processing Unit” or CPU firstly used in 1955. The term is generally used to defined to a device for software execution. Early computer was “Fixed Program Computer” like ENIAC. Before ENIAC, in June 30, 1945 John Von Neuman publish the news of a “Stored Program Computer” named EDVAC, which is completed by August 1949. EDVAC was capable to do certain number of instructions.

Before EDVAC a small scale experiment was done on 21st June 1948 named “Manchester Baby”. And then “Manchester Mark 1” ran on 16-17 June 1949 at night.

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Early CPUs were designed as for a particular application. To overcome this limitations of custom designated computer scientist are developed multipurpose processors.

In 1950-1960 an improvement was done with the help of transistors. A more reliable CPU were built on one or several printed circuit board.

In 1964, IBM Appeared with its IBM System/360 computer architecture. It was used in a series of computers and it capable of running the same programs with different speed and performance. To process this improvement, IBM used a concept that is microprogram or “Microcode”, which is still used in modern CPUs. The System/360 architecture was so much popular that it helps to build the mainframe computer.

Before the microprocessor came some experiment was done with “small scale integration CPUs and “Large scale integration CPUs.

The term CPU is now applied exclusively to microprocessors. And nowadays several CPUs (dual core, quad core, octa core etc.) can be combined in a single processing chip.

The first commercially available microprocessor was Intel 4004 in 1971, and the first widely used microprocessor was Intel 8080 in 1974.

Structure of CPU

The CPU consists of 3 major units, which are:

  • Memory or Storage
  • Control Unit
  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Major Components

Memory or Storage Unit

By the name we can easily understand that it is Memory or storage related unit, this unit store the instructions, data, and the outputs or results. The memory unit of the CPUs is responsible for transferring information or data to other units of the computer when it needed. It is also known as an internal memory unit or internal storage unit, also called main memory or the primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM).

Depending on its size the speed, power, and performance of the CPUs are changed. There are two types of memory used in the computer, one is primary memory and second is secondary memory. Here are some main functions of memory units given below.

All the data and instructions are stored in memory units which are required to process. It also memorized all the intermediate outputs of any calculation or task when they are in process. The final results or outputs of processing or execution are stored in the memory units before these results are delivered to an output device.

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Control Unit

All the operations or executions or activity of any parts of the computer are controlled by this control Unit. To execute already stored instructions, it send electrical signals to the computer system. It collects the instructions from the memory unit and decodes it then executes those instructions. It’s actually controls the functioning of the computer. It’s work for maintain the plenty flow of information across the processor.

Control, transfer and save the data is done by the control unit among the all parts of the computer. It manages all the units of the computer. The control unit is not capable to process a data or store any data. It communicates with input and output devices for the data and results.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

All the arithmetic and logical functions or operations are done by ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit). There are two subsections in this unit, one is Arithmetic Section and second is Logic Section.

Arithmetic Section: All the arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and all these types of operation and functions are performed by Arithmetic Section. Also, different types of complex operations and repetitive operations are done by ALU.

Logic Section: Logical operations or functions like selecting, comparing, matching, and merging the data, and all these types of actions are performed by Logic Section of ALU.

Working Function

The actual operation of the CPUs, beyond the physical form they received, they follow, execute a sequence of stored instructions that is called a program. The instructions to be executed are kept in some kind of computer memory. Nearly all CPUs follow the fetch, decode and execute steps in their operation, which are collectively known as the instruction cycle.

After the execution process done of an instruction, then the entire process repeats, with the second instruction cycle normally fetching the next-in-sequence instruction due to the increased value in the program counter.

If any instructions manipulate the program counter instead of producing the result data directly, this types of instructions are generally called “jumps” and the program behave like a loops or conditional program execution.

a) Fetch

The first step, fetch, it’s the process to retrieve an instruction. Generally represented by a number or a sequence of numbers from program memory.

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b) Decode

The second step, Decode, it’s performed by instruction decoder by a binary decoder circuitry, the instructions are now converted into a form of signals which is control the other sections of the CPU.

c) Execute

The third step is Execute. The Execute process may consist of a single action or multiple actions, its depends on the architecture of the CPU. When an action is Processing, the control signals electrically make on or off various parts of the CPU that it can perform required operation.

It is a clock pulse process. For quick access some results are stored in an internal CPU register, but in other case results stored in main Memory.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Which Part of the CPU is responsible for processing of data?
(A) Memory unit
(C) Control unit
(D) Options B and C

Ans: The correct option (D) i.e. B and C
The control unit and ALU are responsible for processing data.

Q2. Comparing operation is one type of ________ operation?
(A) Logical
(B)  Arithmetic
(C) both a and b
(d) None of the above

Ans: The correct answer is A, i.e., Logical.
Comparing operation is one type of logical operation.

Q3. What are the major components of the CPU?
(A) Memory or Storage Unit
(B) Control Unit
(C) ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
(D) All of the above

Ans: The correct option is D. i.e., All of the above.
The CPU made with 3 major components which are: Memory or Storage Unit, Control Unit, ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit).

Q4.  All sorts of inputs and outputs are transmitted through which part of the CPU?
(A) Control unit
(B) Memory unit
(D) None of the above

Ans: The correct answer is B, i.e., Memory unit.
All sorts of inputs and outputs are transmitted through the memory unit.

Q5. Which Unit of the CPU communicate with Input and output devices to transfer data or results from memory.
(B) Control unit
(C) Memory unit
(D) None of the above

Ans: The correct answer is B i.e., Control unit
The control unit communicate with input and output devices to transfer the data or results from memory.

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